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Российский журнал гастроэнтерологии, гепатологии, колопроктологии

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Метаболические и генетические детерминанты нарушения липидного обмена при неалкогольной жировой болезни печени

https://doi.org/10.22416/1382-4376-2020-30-2-15-25

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Аннотация

Цель — представить данные литературы о метаболических и генетических механизмах нарушения синтеза жирных кислот (ЖК) в развитии и прогрессировании неалкогольной жировой болезни печени (НАЖБП).

Основное содержание. НАЖБП — широко распространенное заболевание, прогрессирующее от стеатоза до неалкогольного стеатогепатита (НАСГ), которое увеличивает риск развития цирроза, печеночной недостаточности и гепатоцеллюлярной карциномы. Прогрессирование НАЖБП и развитие НАСГ тесно связаны с нарушениями липидного метаболизма, обусловленными не только недостаточным алиментарным поступлением жирных кислот, но и снижением эффективности процесса их эндогенной переработки. В регуляции метаболизма жирных кислот участвуют ферменты десатуразы (FADS1, FADS2) и элонгазы (ELOVL2 и ELOVL5) жирных кислот. Десатуразы кодируются генами десатураз жирных кислот FADS1 и FADS2. Полиморфизм в генах десатураз жирных кислот определяет эффективность эндогенной переработки ПНЖК. Нарушения активности FADS1 и FADS2 и их генов сопровождаются дерегуляцией метаболического пути, участвующего в биосинтезе жирных кислот, и приводят к повреждению клеточных мембран, в которых фосфолипиды являются основными компонентами. Прогрессирование НАЖБП связывают с мощной токсичностью липидов, высвобождаемых в паренхиме печени при потере целостности биомембран клеток.

Заключение. Дальнейшее изучение генетических механизмов НАЖБП, вовлеченных в регуляцию метаболизма жирных кислот, позволит глубже понять патогенез данного многофакторного заболевания.

Об авторах

О. Ю. Кытикова
Владивостокский филиал ФГБНУ «Дальневосточный научный центр физиологии и патологии дыхания» — Научно-исследовательский институт медицинской климатологии и восстановительного лечения
Россия

Кытикова Оксана Юрьевна — доктор медицинских наук, научный сотрудник лаборатории восстановительного лечения

690105, г. Владивосток, ул. Русская, 73-г.



Т. П. Новгородцева
Владивостокский филиал ФГБНУ «Дальневосточный научный центр физиологии и патологии дыхания» — Научно-исследовательский институт медицинской климатологии и восстановительного лечения
Россия

Новгородцева Татьяна Павловна — доктор биологических наук, профессор, зам. директора по научной работе, главный научный сотрудник лаборатории биомедицинских исследований

690105, г. Владивосток, ул. Русская, 73-г.



Ю. К. Денисенко
Владивостокский филиал ФГБНУ «Дальневосточный научный центр физиологии и патологии дыхания» — Научно-исследовательский институт медицинской климатологии и восстановительного лечения
Россия

Денисенко Юлия Константиновна — доктор биологических наук, заведующая лабораторией биомедицинских исследований

690105, г. Владивосток, ул. Русская, 73-г.



Д. А. Ковалевский
Владивостокский филиал ФГБНУ «Дальневосточный научный центр физиологии и патологии дыхания» — Научно-исследовательский институт медицинской климатологии и восстановительного лечения
Россия

Ковалевский Даниил Андреевич — аспирант

690105, г. Владивосток, ул. Русская, 73-г.



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Для цитирования:


Кытикова О.Ю., Новгородцева Т.П., Денисенко Ю.К., Ковалевский Д.А. Метаболические и генетические детерминанты нарушения липидного обмена при неалкогольной жировой болезни печени. Российский журнал гастроэнтерологии, гепатологии, колопроктологии. 2020;30(2):15-25. https://doi.org/10.22416/1382-4376-2020-30-2-15-25

For citation:


Kytikova O.Yu., Novgorodtseva T.P., Denisenko Yu.K., Kovalevsky D.A. Metabolic and Genetic Determinants of Lipid Metabolism Disruption in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Russian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Coloproctology. 2020;30(2):15-25. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.22416/1382-4376-2020-30-2-15-25

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